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In addition to these functions, the BMS also monitors the system temperature to provide a better power consumption scheme, and communicates with individual components and operators.

In other words, a comprehensive BMS should include the following functions: The current BMSs in both academic research and commercialized products are described in Section 2.

This is a serious problem, especially in EV and HEV applications, because an explosion could cause a fatal accident [5].

Moreover, over-discharge causes reduced cell capacity due to irreversible chemical reactions.

The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to the implementation of these functions. State evaluation of a battery, including state of charge, state of health, and state of life, is a critical task for a BMS.

Through reviewing the latest methodologies for the state evaluation of batteries, the future challenges for BMSs are presented and possible solutions are proposed as well.

Table 1 shows the main functions of three popular commercial battery management units (BMUs).

Drawbacks of the mentioned BMUs include the following: Limited data logging function.

The current commercialized BMSs each perform the basic functions differently.To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS.As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions.Various sensors are installed in the battery pack for data acquisition at the monitoring layer.The real-time collected data is used to maintain the system’s safety and determine the battery state.

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Moreover, a vehicle’s battery is designed not only to be a long-lasting energy system, but also to be a high power system.

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